On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA with multiparty support with 385 votes (Democracy 193, Republican 192) to 41 (Democracy 38, Republican 2, Independent 1).  On January 16, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democracy 8, Republican 1, Independent 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for the signature of Donald Trump.  On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).  NAFTA has been formally amended, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only “suspended.”   The Canada-Mexico-U.S. trade agreement will officially enter into force on July 1. In assessing essential capabilities, officials must be convinced, given the following factors, that distributor status is justified: from 1935 to 1980, the two nations concluded a series of bilateral trade agreements that sharply reduced tariffs in both countries.  The most important of these agreements was the 1960s automotive trade agreement (also known as the auto pact).
  While NAFTA provides only for after-sales situations, the general provision for business travellers R187, under which this section of NAFTA is implemented, allows individuals to participate in sales and leasing contracts. Neither the worst fears of Canadian trade opponents – that open trade would erode the country`s manufacturing sector – nor the highest hopes of NAFTA proponents – that this would lead to a rapid increase in productivity – have been realized. Employment in Canada`s manufacturing sector has remained stable, but the productivity gap between the Canadian and U.S. economies has not been closed: until 2017, Canada`s labour productivity remained at 72% of the U.S. level. Applicants for distributor status must complete an application for merchant/investor status [IMM 5321 (PDF, 1.41 MB)] in addition to applying for a work permit. The applicant may act on his behalf or as a representative of an individual or organization acting primarily between Canada and the United States or Mexico. Many economists argue that the current level of TaA funding is largely insufficient to meet the increase in trade-related job losses. “There are pockets that have felt a lot of pain,” Hanson says.
“The existence of these pockets underscores our political failure to help regions and individuals adapt to the effects of globalization.” There is broad agreement among economists that NAFTA has benefited North American economies. Regional trade increased sharply in the first two decades of the treaty, from some $290 billion in 1993 to more than $1.1 trillion in 2016. Cross-border investment has also increased and U.S. direct investment (FDI) in Mexico has increased from $15 billion to more than $100 billion during this period. But experts also say it has proved difficult to highlight the direct impact of the agreement from other factors, including rapid technological change and expanded trade with countries such as China. In the meantime, discussions continue on the impact of NAFTA on employment and wages. Some workers and industries have faced painful disruptions due to the loss of market share due to increased competition, while others have benefited from the new market opportunities that have been created. The USMCA will have an impact on the way Member States negotiate future free trade agreements.
Section 32.10 requires USMCA countries to notify USMCA members three months in advance if they plan to enter into free trade negotiations with non-market economies. Article 32.10 authorizes USMCA countries to review new free trade agreements. It is generally speculated that Article 32.10 targets China.  In fact, a senior White House official said of the USMCA agreement: “We were very concerned about China`s efforts to undermine the U.S. position by concluding