“It really doesn`t offer any kind of disciplines or constraints that would change China`s business model,” says Chad Bown, business economist at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. Chinese President Hu Jintao (right, back) and former Chilean President Sebastian Pinera will participate in the signing ceremony of a complementary investment agreement in Vladivostok, eastern Russia, on September 9, 2012. [Xinhua] An article in the December 2018 review published by two Chinese academics indicated that, in the worst-case trade war, China would suffer a 1.1% decline in employment and a loss of 1% of GDP, which they said would be negligible but manageable for China.  Another paper published by Chinese academics in February 2018 also concluded that the United States would suffer significant social losses as a result of the trade war, but that China could easily lose or gain depending on the impact of the trade war on the trade balance between the United States and China.  The United States, with the largest economy and India, the largest democracy, remains on the margins of one of the world`s largest trading blocs, even as China deepens trade and investment partnerships in the region and the world. Under the agreement, all products exported by China to New Zealand will be duty-free from 1 January 2016, while tariffs on most New Zealand exports to China will be abolished from 1 January 2019. Since the 1980s, Trump has supported tariffs to reduce the U.S. trade deficit and encourage domestic production, and said the country was “ripped off” by its trading partners; The imposition of tariffs has become an important part of his presidential campaign.  A context of the Council of Foreign Relations stated that while many economists and trade experts did not believe that trade deficits were hurting the economy, others felt that persistent trade deficits were often a problem and that there was a substantial debate about the size of the foreign government trade deficit and the policies to be adopted to reduce it.
 Almost all economists who responded to the Associated Press and Reuters polls said that Trump`s tariffs would do more harm than good to the U.S. economy, and some economists have argued for alternative ways for the United States to deal with its trade deficit with China.      Under the free trade agreement, about 99.7% of Chinese exports to Switzerland will have zero tariffs and the free share of Swiss exports to China is 84.2%. The agreement`s weaker trade barriers could encourage global companies to avoid Trump`s tariffs on Chinese products to work in Asia rather than relocate them to North America, said Mary Lovely, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington. At the international level, the ultimate goal of the Trump administration`s trade war is to change China`s trade policy, while tariff enforcement and the negative economic effects of the trade war have also been criticized. Among U.S. industries, U.S. companies and agribusinesses opposed the trade war, although most farmers continued to support Trump. Some U.S. politicians disagree with Trump`s tactics, but most agree with the goal of putting pressure on China.  At the end of November 2019, none of the leading Democratic presidential candidates said he would eliminate tariffs, including Joe Biden and Elizabeth Warren, both of whom agreed that the United States must deal with what it sees as China`s unfair trade policy.  In 2002, when CAFTA had just been established, the volume of bilateral trade was $54.8 billion.